Key Journal Articles

Sometimes it can be tricky to find a suitable reference to support your argument.  In order to try and make this process a little less painful, we’ve compiled a list of the key references for the major themes within Consumer Psychology. 

If there are any topics that you think are missing, why not drop us an e-mail [email protected]) and we’ll add them to the list.

Advert program effects: 

Brunel, F., & Nelson, M. (2003). Message order effects and gender differences in advertising persuasion. Journal of Advertising Research, 43, 330–341. doi:10.1017/S0021849903030320

Furnham, A., Bergland, J., & Gunter, B. (2002). Memory for television advertisements as a function of advertisement-programme congruity. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 525–545. doi:10.1002/acp.812

Newell, S., Henderson, K., & Wu, B. (2001). The effects of pleasure and arousal on recall of advertisements during the Super Bowl. Psychology and Marketing, 18, 1135–1153. doi:10.1002/mar.1047

Advertising wearin

Campbell, M. C., & Keller, K. L. (2003). Brand Familiarity and Advertising Repetition Effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 30, 292–304. doi:10.1086/376800

Advertising wearout:

Blair, M. H. (2000). An empirical investigation of advertising wearin and wearout. Journal of Advertising Research, 40, 95–100.

Bass, F. M., Bruce, N., Majumdar, S., & Murthi, B. P. S. (2007). Wearout Effects of Different Advertising Themes: A Dynamic Bayesian Model of the Advertising-Sales Relationship. Marketing Science, 26, 179–195. doi:10.1287/mksc.1060.0208

Naik, P. (1999). Estimating the Half-life of Advertisements. Marketing Letters, 10, 345–356. doi:10.1023/A:1008158119567


Epley, N., & Gilovich, T. (2001). Putting adjustment back in the anchoring and adjustment heuristic: Differential processing of self-generated and experimenter-provided anchors. Psychological Science, 12, 391–396. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00372

Simmons, J. P., LeBoeuf, R. A., & Nelson, L. D. (2010). The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: Do people adjust from provided anchors? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 917. doi:10.1037/a0021540

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124. doi:10.1126/science.185.4157.1124

Asymmetric Dominance

Ariely, D., & Wallsten, T. S. (1995). Seeking subjective dominance in multidimensional space: An explanation of the asymmetric dominance effect. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes63, 223–232. doi:10.1006/obhd.1995.1075

Colman, A. M., Pulford, B. D., & Bolger, F. (2007). Asymmetric dominance and phantom decoy effects in games. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes104, 193–206. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.03.001

Sedikides, C., Ariely, D., & Olsen, N. (1999). Contextual and procedural determinants of partner selection: Of asymmetric dominance and prominence. Social Cognition17, 118–139. doi:10.1521/soco.1999.17.2.118

Automatic Information Processing

Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L. (1996). Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 230–244. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.71.2.230

Blair, I. V., & Banaji, M. R. (1996). Automatic and Controlled Processes in stereotype Priming. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1142–1163. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.70.6.1142

Chartrand, T., Huber, J., Shiv, B., & Tanner, R. (2008). Nonconscious goals and consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 189–201. doi:10.1086/588685

Availability heuristic

Folkes, V. S. (1988). The availability heuristic and perceived risk. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 13–23. doi:10.1086/209141

Klumpp, G., & Rittenauer-Schatka, H. (1991). Ease of Retrieval as Information: Another Look at the Availability Heuristic. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 195–202. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.61.2.195

Wänke, M., Schwarz, N., & Bless, H. (1995). The availability heuristic revisited: Experienced ease of retrieval in mundane frequency estimates. Acta Psychologica, 89, 83–90. doi:10.1016/0001-6918(93)E0072-A

Behavioral backlash

Laran, J., Dalton, A. N., & Andrade, E. B. (2011). The Curious Case of Behavioral Backlash: Why Brands Produce Priming Effects and Slogans Produce Reverse Priming Effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 999–1014. doi:10.1086/656577

Plant, E. A., & Devine, P. G. (2001). Responses to other-imposed pro-black pressure: Acceptance or backlash? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 486–501. doi:10.1006/jesp.2001.1478

Brand Personality

Aaker, J. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 347–356. doi:10.2307/3151897

Azoulay, A., & Kapferer, J.-N. (2003). Do brand personality scales really measure brand personality? The Journal of Brand Management, 11, 143–155. doi:10.1057/

Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Guido, G. (2001). Brand personality: how to make the metaphor fit? Journal of Economic Psychology, 22, 377–395. doi:10.1016/S0167-4870(01)00039-3

Fennis, B. M., & Pruyn, A. T. H. (2007). You are what you wear: Brand personality influences on consumer impression formation. Journal of Business Research60, 634–639. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.06.013

Change Blindness

Levin, D. T., Momen, N., Drivdahl, S. B., IV, & Simons, D. J. (2000). Change blindness blindness: The metacognitive error of overestimating change-detection ability. Visual Cognition7, 397–412. doi:10.1080/135062800394865

Simons, D. J., & Ambinder, M. S. (2005). Change blindness theory and consequences. Current directions in psychological science14, 44–48. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00332.x

Simons, D. J., & Chabris, C. F. (1999). Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception28, 1059–1074. doi:10.1068/p2952

Simons, D. J., & Levin, D. T. (1997). Change blindness. Trends in cognitive sciences1, 261–267. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(97)01080-2

Classical Conditioning

Bouton, M. E., & Moody, E. W. (2004). Memory processes in classical conditioning. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 28, 663–674. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.09.001

Gorn, G. J. (1982). The effects of music in advertising on choice behavior: A classical conditioning approach. Journal of Marketing, 46, 94–101. doi:10.2307/1251163

Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2001). Implicit attitude formation through classical conditioning. Psychological Science, 12, 413–417. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00376

Till, B. D., Stanley, S. M., & Priluck, R. (2008). Classical conditioning and celebrity endorsers: An examination of belongingness and resistance to extinction. Psychology and Marketing, 25, 179–196. doi:10.1002/mar.20205

Cognitive dissonance

Mao, W., & Oppewal, H. (2010). Did I choose the right university? How post-purchase information affects cognitive dissonance, satisfaction and perceived service quality. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 18, 28–35. doi:10.1016/j.ausmj.2009.10.002

Sweeney, J. C., Hausknecht, D., & Soutar, G. N. (2000). Cognitive dissonance after purchase: a multidimensional scale. Psychology and Marketing, 17, 369–385. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(200005)17:5<369::AID-MAR1>3.0.CO;2-G

Thøgersen, J. (2004). A cognitive dissonance interpretation of consistencies and inconsistencies in environmentally responsible behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 93–103. doi:10.1016/S0272-4944(03)00039-2

Confirmation Bias

Jonas, E., Schulz-Hardt, S., Frey, D., & Thelen, N. (2001). Confirmation bias in sequential information search after preliminary decisions: an expansion of dissonance theoretical research on selective exposure to information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 557. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.80.4.557

Kassin, S. M., Goldstein, C. C., & Savitsky, K. (2003). Behavioral confirmation in the interrogation room: On the dangers of presuming guilt. Law and Human Behavior, 27, 187–203. doi:10.1023/A:1022599230598

Nickerson, R. S. (1998). Confirmation bias: a ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Review of General Psychology, 2, 175. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.2.2.175

Consistency Principle

Cialdini, R. B., Cacioppo, J. T., Bassett, R., & Miller, J. A. (1978). Low-ball procedure for producing compliance: Commitment then cost. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 463–476. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.36.5.463

Cialdini, R. B., Trost, M. R., & Newsom, J. T. (1995). Preference for consistency: The development of a valid measure and the discovery of surprising behavioral implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 318–328. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.69.2.318

Guadagno, R. E., Asher, T., Demaine, L. J., & Cialdini, R. B. (2001). When saying yes leads to saying no: Preference for consistency and the reverse foot-in-the-door effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 859–867. doi:10.1177/0146167201277008

Contagion Theory

Howard, D. J., & Gengler, C. (2001). Emotional contagion effects on product attitudes. Journal of Consumer Research, 28, 189–201. doi:10.1086/322897

Morales, A. C., & Fitzsimons, G. J. (2007). Product contagion: Changing consumer evaluations through physical contact with “disgusting” products. Journal of Marketing Research, 44, 272–283. doi:10.1509/jmkr.44.2.272


Argo, J. J., Dahl, D. W., & Manchanda, R. V. (2005). The influence of a mere social presence in a retail context. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 207–212. doi:10.1086/432230

Machleit, K., Eroglu, S. A., & Mantel, S. (2000). Perceived retail crowding and shopping satisfaction: what modifies this relationship? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9, 29–42. doi:10.1207/s15327663jcp0901_3

Rompay, T. J. V., Galetzka, M., Pruyn, A. T., & Garcia, J. M. (2008). Human and spatial dimensions of retail density: Revisiting the role of perceived control. Psychology and Marketing, 25, 319–335. doi:10.1002/mar.20211


Diener, E., Fraser, S. C., Beaman, A. L., & Kelem, R. T. (1976). Effects of deindividuation variables on stealing among Halloween trick-or-treaters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology33, 178-183. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.33.2.178

Diener, E., Lusk, R., DeFour, D., & Flax, R. (1980). Deindividuation: Effects of group size, density, number of observers, and group member similarity on self-consciousness and disinhibited behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology39, 449-459. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.39.3.449

Lea, M., Spears, R., & de Groot, D. (2001). Knowing me, knowing you: Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin27, 526–537. doi:10.1348/014466602760344313

Distractor Devaluation Effect

Duff, B. R., & Faber, R. J. (2011). Missing the mark. Journal of Advertising, 40, 51-62. doi: 10.2753/JOA0091-3367400204

Fenske, M. J., & Raymond, J. E. (2006). Affective influences of selective attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 312–316. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2006.00459.x

Kiss, M., Goolsby, B. A., Raymond, J. E., Shapiro, K. L., Silvert, L., Nobre, A. C., et al. (2007). Efficient attentional selection predicts distractor devaluation: Event-related potential evidence for a direct link between attention and emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 1316–1322. doi:10.1162/jocn.2007.19.8.1316

Raymond, J. E., Fenske, M. J., & Westoby, N. (2005). Emotional devaluation of distracting patterns and faces: A consequence of attentional inhibition during visual search? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31, 1404. doi:10.1037/0096-1523.31.6.1404

Elaboration Likelihood Model

Bhattacherjee, A., & Sanford, C. (2006). Influence processes for information technology acceptance: an elaboration likelihood model. MIS Quarterly, 30, 805–825.

Bitner, M. J., & Obermiller, C. (1985). The elaboration likelihood model: Limitations and extensions in marketing. Advances in Consumer Research, 12, 420-425.

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In Communication and Persuasion (pp. 1-24). Springer New York. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-4964-1_1

Evolutionary Consumerism 

Faraji-Rad, A., Moeini-Jazani, M., & Warlop, L. (2013). Women seek more variety in rewards when closer to ovulation.Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23, 503–508. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2013.05.001

Saad, G. (2006). Applying evolutionary psychology in understanding the Darwinian roots of consumption phenomena. Managerial and Decision Economics, 27, 189–201. doi:10.1002/mde.1292

Saad, G., & Gill, T. (2000). Applications of evolutionary psychology in marketing. Psychology and Marketing, 17, 1005–1034. doi:10.1002/1520-6793(200012)17:12<1005::AID-MAR1>3.0.CO;2-H

Sundie, J. M., Kenrick, D. T., Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., Vohs, K. D., & Beal, D. J. (2011). Peacocks, Porsches, and Thorstein Veblen: conspicuous consumption as a sexual signaling system. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 664. doi:10.1037/a0021669

Expectation Effects

Aronson, E., & Carlsmith, J. (1962). Performance expectancy as a determinant of actual performance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology65, 178–182. doi:10.1037/h0042291

Aronson, J., Lustina, M., Good, C., Keough, K., Steele, C., & Brown, J. (1999). When white men can’t do math: Necessary and sufficient factors in stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology35, 29–46. doi:10.1006/jesp.1998.1371

Cadinu, M., Maass, A., Frigerio, S., Impagliazzo, L., & Latinotti, S. (2003). Stereotype threat: the effect of expectancy on performance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33,267–285. doi:10.1002/ejsp.145

Eden, D., & Shani, A. B. (1982). Pygmalion goes to boot camp: Expectancy, leadership, and trainee performance. Journal of Applied Psychology67, 194–199. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.67.2.194

Rosenthal R, & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. The Urban Review, 3, 16–20. doi:10.1007/BF02322211

Steele, C., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology69, 797–811. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.69.5.797

Halo Effect

Bagozzi, R. P. (1996). The role of arousal in the creation and control of the halo effect in attitude models. Psychology and Marketing, 13, 235–264. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199605)13:3<235::AID-MAR1>3.0.CO;2-D

Balzer, W. K., & Sulsky, L. M. (1992). Halo and performance appraisal research: A critical examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 975. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.77.6.975

Holbrook, M. B. (1983). Using a structural model of halo effect to assess perceptual distortion due to affective overtones. Journal of Consumer Research,10,  247–252. doi:10.1086/208963


Dieckmann, A., Dippold, K., & Dietrich, H. (2009). Compensatory versus noncompensatory models for predicting consumer preferences. Judgment and Decision Making4, 200–213.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: a heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive psychology5, 207–232. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(73)90033-9

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science185, 1124. doi:10.1126/science.185.4157.1124

Yan, D., Sengupta, J., & Wyer, R. S., Jr. (2013). Package Size and Perceived Quality: The Intervening Role of Unit Price Perceptions. Journal of Consumer Psychologyin press. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2013.08.001

Hyperbolic discounting

Hantula, D. A., & Bryant, K. (2004). Delay discounting determines delivery fees in an e-commerce simulation: A behavioral economic perspective. Psychology and Marketing, 22, 153–161. doi:10.1002/mar.20052

Rubinstein, A. (2003). “Economics and Psychology?” The Case of Hyperbolic Discounting. International Economic Review, 44, 1207–1216. doi:10.1111/1468-2354.t01-1-00106

Soman, D., Ainslie, G., Frederick, S., Li, X., Lynch, J., Moreau, P., et al. (2005). The psychology of intertemporal discounting: Why are distant events valued differently from proximal ones? Marketing Letters, 16, 347–360. doi:10.1007/s11002-005-5897-x

In-store Music

Alpert, J. I., & Alpert, M. I. (1990). Music influences on mood and purchase intentions. Psychology and Marketing, 7, 109–133. doi:10.1002/mar.4220070204

North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J., & McKendrick, J. (1997). In-store music affects product choice. Nature390, 132. doi:10.1038/36484

North, A. C., Shilcock, A., & Hargreaves, D. J. (2003). The Effect of Musical Style on Restaurant Customers’ Spending. Environment and Behavior, 35, 712–718. doi:10.1177/0013916503254749

North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J., & Mckendrick, J. (1999). The influence of in-store music on wine selections. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 271. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.84.2.271

Libertarianism Paternalism

Holm, S. (2007). Obesity interventions and ethics. Obesity reviews8, 207–210. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00343.x

Sunstein, C. R., & Thaler, R. H. (2003). Libertarian paternalism is not an oxymoron. The University of Chicago Law Review, 70, 1159–1202. doi:10.2139/ssrn.405940

Wells, P. (2010). A nudge one way, a nudge the other: Libertarian paternalism as political strategy. People, Place & Policy, 4, 111–118. doi:10.3351/ppp.0004.0003.0004

Loss Aversion

Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 47, 263–291. doi:10.2307/1914185

Thaler, R. H., Tversky, A., Kahneman, D., & Schwartz, A. (1997). The effect of myopia and loss aversion on risk taking: An experimental test. The Quarterly Journal of Economics112, 647–661. doi:10.1162/003355397555226

Tom, S. M., Fox, C. R., Trepel, C., & Poldrack, R. A. (2007). The neural basis of loss aversion in decision-making under risk. Science315, 515–518. doi:10.1126/science.1134239

Mere Exposure Effect

Bornstein, R. F., & D’Agostino, P. R. (1992). Stimulus recognition and the mere exposure effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 545-552. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.63.4.545

Gordon, P. C., & Holyoak, K. J. (1983). Implicit learning and generalization of the“ mere exposure” effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 492. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.45.3.492

Zajonc, R. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 1–27. doi:10.1037/h0025848

Message Framing

Levin, I. P., & Gaeth, G. J. (1988). How consumers are affected by the framing of attribute information before and after consuming the product. Journal of Consumer Research, 374–378. doi:10.1086/209174

Maheswaran, D., & Meyers-Levy, J. (1990). The influence of message framing and issue involvement. Journal of Marketing Research, 361–367. doi:10.2307/3172593

Meyerowitz, B. E., & Chaiken, S. (1987). The effect of message framing on breast self-examination attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology52, 500–510. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.52.3.500

Rothman, A. J., & Salovey, P. (1997). Shaping perceptions to motivate healthy behavior: the role of message framing. Psychological Bulletin121, 3–19. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.3

Schneider, T. R., Salovey, P., Apanovitch, A. M., Pizarro, J., McCarthy, D., Zullo, J., & Rothman, A. J. (2001). The effects of message framing and ethnic targeting on mammography use among low-income women. Health Psychology20, 256–266. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.20.4.256

Shen, L., & Dillard, J. P. (2007). The influence of behavioral inhibition/approach systems and message framing on the processing of persuasive health messages. Communication Research, 34, 433–467. doi:10.1177/0093650207302787

Misattribution of Arousal  

Dutton, D. G., & Aron, A. P. (1974). Some evidence for heightened sexual attraction under conditions of high anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 510. doi:10.1037/h0037031

Fries, A., & Frey, D. (1980). Misattribution of arousal and the effects of self-threatening information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16, 405–416. doi:10.1016/0022-1031(80)90047-5

Schachter, S., & Singer, J. E. (1962). Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychology Review, 69, 379–399. doi:10.1037/h0046234


Arnold, M. J., & Reynolds, K. E. (2009). Affect and Retail Shopping Behavior: Understanding the Role of Mood Regulation and Regulatory Focus. Journal of Retailing, 85, 308–320. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2009.05.004

Crawford, J., & Henry, J. (2004). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 245–265. doi:10.1348/0144665031752934

Faber, R. J., & Christenson, G. A. (1996). In the mood to buy: Differences in the mood states experienced by compulsive buyers and other consumers. Psychology and Marketing, 13, 803–819. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199612)13:8<803::AID-MAR6>3.0.CO;2-J

Swinyard, W. (2003). The effects of salesperson mood, shopper behavior, and store type on customer service. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 10, 323–333. doi:10.1016/S0969-6989(02)00037-1


Ariely, D., & Berns, G. S. (2010). Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 284–292. doi:10.1038/nrn2795

Koenigs, M., & Tranel, D. (2007). Prefrontal cortex damage abolishes brand-cued changes in cola preference. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3, 1–6. doi:10.1093/scan/nsm032

Ohme, R., Reykowska, D., Wiener, D., & Choromanska, A. (2009). Analysis of neurophysiological reactions to advertising stimuli by means of EEG and galvanic skin response measures. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 2, 21. doi:10.1037/a0015462

Reimann, M., Schilke, O., Weber, B., Neuhaus, C., & Zaichkowsky, J. (2011). Functional magnetic resonance imaging in consumer research: A review and application. Psychology and Marketing, 28, 608–637. doi:10.1002/mar.20403

Wang, Y. J., & Minor, M. S. (2008). Validity, reliability, and applicability of psychophysiological techniques in marketing research. Psychology and Marketing, 25, 197–232. doi:10.1002/mar.20206

Olfactory Marketing

Chebat, J.-C., & Michon, R. (2003). Impact of ambient odors on mall shoppers’ emotions, cognition, and spending: A test of competitive causal theories. Journal of Business Research, 56, 529–539. doi:10.1016/S0148-2963(01)00247-8

Hirsch, A. R. (1995). Effects of Ambient Odors on Slot-Machine usage in a Las Vegas Casino. Psychology and Marketing, 12, 585–594. doi:10.1002/mar.4220120703

Krishna, A., Elder, R. S., & Caldara, C. (2010). Feminine to smell but masculine to touch? Multisensory congruence and its effect on the aesthetic experience. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20, 410–418. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2010.06.010

Krishna, A., Lwin, M. O., & Morrin, M. (2010). Product Scent and Memory. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 57–67. doi:10.1086/649909

Paradox of Choice

Iyengar, S. S., & Lepper, M. R. (2000). When choice is demotivating: Can one desire too much of a good thing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology79, 995–1006. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.79.6.995

Iyengar, S. S., Huberman, G., & Jiang, W. (2004). How much choice is too much? Contributions to 401 (k) retirement plans. Pension design and structure: New lessons from behavioral finance, 83–95. doi:10.1093/0199273391.003.0005

Scheibehenne, B., Greifeneder, R., & Todd, P. M. (2010). Can there ever be too many options? A metaanalytic review of choice overload. Journal of Consumer Research37, 409–425. doi:10.1086/651235


Gountas, J., & Gountas, S. (2007). Personality orientations, emotional states, customer satisfaction, and intention to repurchase. Journal of Business Research, 60, 72–75. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.08.007

Plummer, J. T. (2000). How personality makes a difference. Journal of Advertising Research, 40, 79–84.

Rammstedt, B., & John, O. (2007). Measuring personality in one minute or less: A 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 203–212. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2006.02.001

Primacy & Recency effect

Brunel, F., & Nelson, M. (2003). Message order effects and gender differences in advertising persuasion. Journal of Advertising Research, 43, 330–341. doi:10.1017/S0021849903030320

Haugtvedt, C. P., & Wegener, D. T. (1994). Message order effects in persuasion: An attitude strength perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 205–218. doi:10.1086/209393

Tan, L., & Ward, G. (2000). A recency-based account of the primacy effect in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1589-1625. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.26.6.1589


Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L. (1996). Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 230–244. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.71.2.230

Brasel, S. A., & Gips, J. (2010). Red Bull “Gives You Wings” for better or worse: A double-edged impact of brand exposure on consumer performance. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2010.09.008

Dijksterhuis, A., & van Knippenberg, A. (1998). The Relation Between Perception and Behavior, or How to Win a Game of Trivial Pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 865–877. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.4.865

Rational Consumer Decision Making

Fishbein, M. (1963). An Investigation of the relationships between beliefs about an object and the attitude toward that object. Human Relations, 16, 233–239. doi:10.1177/001872676301600302



Cialdini, R. B., Vincent, J. E., Lewis, S. K., Catalan, J., Wheeler, D., & Darby, B. L. (1975). Reciprocal concessions procedure for inducing compliance: The door-in-the-face technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 206. doi:10.1037/h0076284

Falk, A., & Fischbacher, U. (2006). A theory of reciprocity. Games and Economic Behavior, 54, 293–315. doi:10.1016/j.geb.2005.03.001

Fehr, E., & Gächter, S. (2000). Fairness and Retaliation. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14, 159–181. doi:10.1257/jep.14.3.159


Schadenfreude in Marketing

Sundie, J. M., Ward, J. C., Beal, D. J., Chin, W. W., & Geiger-Oneto, S. (2009). Schadenfreude as a consumption-related emotion: Feeling happiness about the downfall of another’s product. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19, 356–373. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2009.02.015


Self Determination Theory

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, N.Y.: Univ of Rochester Press.

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627–668.

Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 105. doi:10.1037/h0030644


Sex in Advertising

Bower, A. B., & Landreth, S. (2001). Is beauty best? Highly versus normally attractive models in advertising. Journal of Advertising, 30, 1–12. doi:10.1080/00913367.2001.10673627

Reichert, T. (2002). Sex in advertising research: A review of content, effects, and functions of sexual information in consumer advertising. Annual Review of Sex Research, 13, 241-273. doi: 10.1080/10532528.2002.10559806

Saad, G. (2004). Applying evolutionary psychology in understanding the representation of women in advertisements. Psychology and Marketing, 21, 593–612. doi:10.1002/mar.20020


Shock Tactics in Advertising

Dahl, D. W., Frankenberger, K. D., & Manchanda, R. V. (2003). Does It Pay to Shock? Reactions to Shocking and Nonshocking Advertising Content among University Students. Journal of Advertising Research, 43, 268–280. doi:10.1017/S0021849903030332

Hastings, G., & Stead, M. (2004). Fear appeals in social marketing: Strategic and ethical reasons for concern. Psychology and Marketing, 21, 961–986. doi:10.1002/mar.20043

Rossiter, J. R., & Thornton, J. (2004). Fear‐pattern analysis supports the fear‐drive model for antispeeding road‐safety TV ads. Psychology and Marketing, 21, 945–960. doi:10.1002/mar.20042

Shopping Momentum Effect

Dhar, R., Huber, J., & Khan, U. (2007). The Shopping Momentum Effect. Journal of Marketing Research, 44, 370–378. doi:10.1509/jmkr.44.3.370

Xu, A. J., & Wyer, R. S., Jr. (2007). The Effect of Mind‐Sets on Consumer Decision Strategies. Journal of Consumer Research, 34, 556–566. doi:10.1086/519293

Social Conformity

Asch, S. E. (1955). Opinions and Social Pressure. Scientific American, 193, 31–35. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1155-31

Goldstein, N. J., Cialdini, R. B., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). A Room with a Viewpoint: Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 472–482. doi:10.1086/586910

Schultz, P. W. (1999). Changing behavior with normative feedback interventions: A field experiment on curbside recycling. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 25–36. doi:10.1207/s15324834basp2101_3

Weitzman, E., Nelson, T., & Wechsler, H. (2003). Taking up binge drinking in college: The influences of person, social group, and environment. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32, 26–35. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00457-3

Status Quo Bias

Hartman, R. S., Doane, M. J., & Woo, C.-K. (1991). Consumer rationality and the status quo. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106, 141–162. doi:10.2307/2937910

Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion, and status quo bias. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 51, 193–206. doi:10.1257/jep.5.1.193

Samuelson, W., & Zeckhauser, R. (1988). Status quo bias in decision making. Journal of risk and uncertainty, 1, 7–59. doi:10.1007/BF00055564

Stimulus generalization

Seminar, C. B. (1987). Affect generalization to similar and dissimilar brand extensions. Psychology and Marketing, 4, 225–237. doi:10.1002/mar.4220040306

Till, B. D., & Priluck, R. L. (2000). Stimulus generalization in classical conditioning: An initial investigation and extension. Psychology and Marketing, 17, 55–72. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(200001)17:1<55::AID-MAR4>3.0.CO;2-C

Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1. doi:10.1037/h0069608

 Subliminal advertising

Broyles, S. (2006). Subliminal advertising and the perpetual popularity of playing to people’s paranoia. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 40, 392–406. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6606.2006.00063.x

Karremans, J. C., Stoebe, W., Claus, J., (null), (null), & (null). (2006). Beyond Vicary’s fantasies: The impact of subliminal priming and brand choice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 792–798. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2005.12.002

Saegert, J. (1987). Why marketing should quit giving subliminal advertising the benefit of the doubt. Psychology and Marketing, 4, 107–120. doi:10.1002/mar.4220040204

Strahan, E., Spencer, S., & Zanna, M. (2002). Subliminal priming and persuasion: Striking while the iron is hot. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 556–568.

Yerkes-Dodson Law

Anderson, K. J., Revelle, W., & Lynch, M. J. (1989). Caffeine, impulsivity, and memory scanning: A comparison of two explanations for the Yerkes-Dodson Effect. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 1–20. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(94)90226-7

Anderson, K. (1990). Arousal and the Inverted-U Hypothesis: A Critique of Neiss’s ‘Reconceptualizing Arousal’. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 96–100. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.107.1.96

Bregman, N. J., & McAllister, H. A. (1982). Motivation and Skin Temperature Biofeedback: Yerkes‐Dodson Revisited. Psychophysiology, 19, 282–285. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1982.tb02564.x